If you’re in an emergency call (000).
To find out how to perform CPR on a child (1-8 years old) follow the guide below. You can also go to specific guides on CPR for adults & older children (> 8 years), infants and during pregnancy. Please note – the information provided below is not a substitute for first aid training.
How to determine if CPR is necessary
The DRSABCD action plan is a structured way of assisting a casualty. It includes vital steps such as assessing for danger, checking for a response, sending for help, clearing and opening the airway, and checking for breathing.
All the steps on the Basic Life Support chart below need to be taken before performing CPR on a child.
How to perform CPR on a child
After having followed the DRSABCD plan, follow the steps below.
CPR is performed at a ratio of 30:2 (30 chest compressions + 2 rescue breaths).
1. Place the child on a firm surface on their back. Kneel beside them.
2. Place the heel of one hand on the lower half of the sternum. Use your other hand to gently hold their head in place.
3. Straighten your arm and position yourself over the child’s chest.
4. Use the weight of your body to press straight down onto their chest by ⅓ the depth of their chest which is generally about 5 cm.
5. Release the pressure. Allow for a full chest recoil by lifting your hands slightly off the chest between each compression. The time spent on chest compressions and release phases should be equal. Pressing down and releasing comprises one compression.
6. Perform 30 chest compressions moderately hard and fast, at a rate of about 100-120 per minute. It is helpful to count aloud.
Rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth)
After the 30 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths.
1. Open the child’s airway. Ensure the head is tilted back and the chin is lifted by placing one hand on their forehead and the other hand under their chin to tilt the head back.
2. Use your index finger and thumb to now pinch closed the soft part of the child’s nose. Use your other hand to open the child’s mouth.
3. Take a breath and with your mouth form a tight seal over the child’s mouth. Blow at a steady rate into the child’s mouth for about 1 second, and look for the chest to rise. Now look for the chest to fall. Repeat and give a second rescue breath.
If the chest does not rise, make sure:
- The child is positioned properly.
- The airway is not obstructed by a foreign body – if it is – remove it.
- The nose is pinched closed to prevent any air from escaping and you maintain a tight seal with the child’s mouth.
One cycle of CPR consists of 30 compressions + 2 rescue breaths.
Keep repeating this process and aim to do 5 cycles of CPR in roughly 2 minutes.
Giving life-saving CPR is very tiring. If you have another person to help you, with minimal interruption, swap between being the one to give mouth-to-mouth and doing compressions every 5 cycles.
Using an AED
If an AED is available – turn AED on and attach pads or get a bystander to attach them during compressions. Follow the AED’s instructions. An AED will analyse heart rhythm every 2 minutes. It may or may not give a shock. Continue to give CPR in between each analyses cycle.
Find out more about using an AED.
Continue performing CPR until:
- the child responds or resumes breathing normally
- it is impossible to continue e.g. due to exhaustion
- a health care professional takes over or directs that CPR be ceased (don't stop until they tell you)
- it is too dangerous to continue
If the child resumes normal breathing then place them in the Recovery Position and monitor breathing until help arrives.
Printable CPR Chart
Download the Printable CPR Guide for Children.
Other CPR Resources
- Step-by-Step Guide – CPR for Adults & Older Children
- Step-by-Step Guide – CPR for Infants
- Step-by-Step Guide – CPR during Pregnancy
Visit the Australia Wide First Aid CPR Library for even more information, guides and downloadable resources.