If you, a family member or a friend have asthma or anaphylaxis, it is important that both you and your home are prepared. In order to be ready for an asthma or anaphylaxis emergency you should follow 3 steps:
- Reduce the risk of an emergency by removing triggers
- Know the symptoms so you can act quickly
- Know how to react in the event of an emergency
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1. Know the triggers
The factors that cause someone to have an anaphylactic or asthmatic reaction are called ‘allergens’ or ‘triggers’. In order to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis or an asthma attack in your home you need to remove any trigger substances.
Whether someone living in your home has one of these allergies, or a friend with anaphylaxis or asthma is visiting, it is important to know what the triggers are. Triggers vary from person to person. Knowing the factors that cause a particular individual to have a reaction will make it easier for you to ‘trigger proof’ your home.
- Tree nuts
Venom from Bites and Stings
- Ant stings
- Over the counter
- Cigarette smoke
- Inhaled allergens (e.g. pollens, moulds, animal dander and dust mites)
- Environmental factors (e.g. dust, pollution, wood smoke, bush fires)
- Chemicals and strong smells (e.g. perfumes, cleaning products)
- Some foods and food preservatives, flavourings and colourings (uncommon)
Other triggers to look out for in asthmatics:
- Colds and flu
- Certain medications
- Emotional factors (e.g. laughter and stress)
- Changes in temperature and weather
2. Know the symptoms
The next step in making sure you are ready for an asthma or anaphylactic emergency in the home is to know the symptoms so that you can act fast.
Anaphylaxis symptoms include:
- Tightness of the throat from swelling
- Difficulty breathing
- Tongue & facial swelling
- Hoarse voice or difficulty speaking
- A wheeze or persistent cough
- Collapse or falling unconscious
- Becoming pale or floppy (young children)
- Abdominal pain & vomiting
- Hives, welts & body redness
The most common asthma symptoms include:
- Shortness of breath
- Chest tightness
- Coughing fits
- Difficulty breathing
- Dry, irritating, persistent cough, particularly at night and early morning
Asthma danger signs
If you or someone else is having a severe asthma attack you should call 000 immediately. Symptoms of a severe asthma attack include:
- Gasping for breath having little or no wheeze due to lack of air movement
- Severe difficulties breathing
- Severe chest tightness
- Only able to speak a few words at a time
- Feeling distressed and anxious
- Blue discolouration on or around the lips (if skin colour also changes this can be hard to see)
- Pale and sweaty skin
- Sucking in of throat and rib muscles
- Using shoulder muscles or bracing with arms to help with breathing
- Symptoms rapidly getting worse or frequently using reliever more than every 2 hours
- Children may become restless, unable to to settle or become drowsy
- Children may also have trouble eating and drinking due to shortness of breath
- A child may have severe coughing or vomiting
3. Know how to react
No matter how well you have trigger proofed your home, in extremely sensitive cases it only takes a small amount of the allergen to set off an attack. You should therefore make sure you know how to react to an anaphylaxis and asthma emergency in your home.
First Aid for Anaphylaxis
If someone’s symptoms and signs suggest anaphylaxis you should follow their Anaphylaxis Action Plan or take the following steps:
- Lay victim flat, do not stand or walk, if breathing is difficult, allow to sit
- Prevent further exposure to the triggering agent if possible
- Administer adrenaline through auto-injector:
- Child less than 5 years – 0.15 mg intramuscular injection.
- Older than 5 years – 0.3mg intramuscular injection
- Call an ambulance
- Administer oxygen and / or asthma medication for respiratory symptoms.
- Further adrenaline should be given if no response after five minutes.
- If breathing stops follow resuscitation and life support procedures.
First Aid for Asthma
If someone is showing symptoms of an asthma attack you should follow their Asthma Action Plan or use the following Asthma First Aid Plan:
Asthma First Aid Plan
Note: If someone is showing signs of a severe asthma attack you should call an ambulance immediately and follow this Asthma First Aid Plan until they arrive.
- Sit the person comfortably upright. Be calm and reassuring. Do not leave the person alone.
- Without delay give four separate puffs of a “reliever”. The medication is best given one puff at a time via a spacer device. If a spacer is not available, simply use the puffer.
- Ask the person to take four breaths from the spacer after each puff of medication.
- Use the victim’s own inhaler if possible. If not, use the first aid kit inhaler if available or borrow one from someone else.
- The first aid rescuer should provide assistance with administration of a reliever if required.
- Wait four minutes. If there is little or no improvement give another four puffs.
- If there is still no improvement, call an ambulance immediately. Keep giving four puffs every four minutes until the ambulance arrives.
For more information about anaphylaxis read Guideline 9.2.7 by Australian Resuscitation Council.
To learn more about first aid management for asthma, read Guideline 9.2.5 by Australian Resuscitation Council and New Zealand Resuscitation Council.
Categorised in: Asthma & Anaphylaxis
This post was written by awfa